This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. The principles adopted here earlier [that is, that the author had to wait until the first edition had been successfully marketed] would indeed hinder the propagation of scholarship and tie down the author too much, for the availability of a [suitable] publisher [for a new edition] is something that is beyond his control [and, therefore, forcing him to not undertake anything until the first edition is sold off could ruin his chances of publishing an improved version of his work].
However, Carl Hermann Hemmerde in Halle, who had published earlier editions of the first cantos of the epic, claimed to have an unlimited publishing right to Der Messias , allegedly based on a contract with the author. Klopstock protested that such a provision had not been part of his publishing contract with Hemmerde, which was, moreover, for just one edition. Eventually the Prussian privilege was refused on the grounds that Klopstock had not been able to come to terms with Hemmerde. The ownership of the work itself, in as far as it is an intellectual product, is not transferred to the publisher at all: rather, the latter merely acquires the distribution right [to the work], that is, the right to reproduce the work by means of printing [and to sell these copies].
The views which Nicolai put into the mouth of the hero of a satirical novel he published in discussed below , were to some extent re-iterated in the letter which he sent to the editors of the Statute Book. The reprinting of original English literature was amongst his earliest enterprises as a publisher:. In the early s, he conceived the grandiose plan of reprinting the best works of English literature to make them available at lower prices than the expensive imports. Although the project began and ended with the ten-volume Works of Alexander Pope , since few Germans could read English in the s, it was a highly innovative idea that won Nicolai praise at that time.
What the authors want is to give the publisher as few sheets of manuscript as possible for as much money as they can get out of him. Authors are keen on expending the least possible time, effort, thought, and skill on their books, yet with the hope of reaping as much glory, reward, and promotion as possible. There are quite a few publishers around who commission their authors to write works which they think will sell easily: Stories, Novels, Murder Mysteries, Trustworthy Accounts [ To produce such books, a publisher has no need of authors who have made a name for themselves: what he needs are simply scribblers who can fill sheets of paper by the ell.
In fact, I know a publisher who has up to ten or twelve such authors sitting at a long table in his house, and to each of them he assigns the task that he must complete so as to earn his daily wages.
And yet, you know, they are manufactured almost in the same way: it is just that, as with the stitching of socks, you only have to use your hands and not your feet as well, as is the case when weaving. And I assure you, Sir, that the army is not stricter in the orders it sets for the punctual supply and delivery of shirts and socks for its soldiers than the publishers are with regard to the supply of translations of French works, since in these factories such translations are considered to be the meanest, but also the most marketable wares.
According to the old proof-reader, translators were even more dependent on publishers, agents, and commissioners than original authors. Furthermore, when a publisher needs some quires to barter at a book fair:. The one who has sold at the highest possible price or purchased as cheaply as possible imagines that he has pulled off a bargain.
After that, the translator takes home the poor victim and either slaughters it himself or entrusts this to someone else. Sebaldus : To someone else?
What do you mean by that? These famous individuals are the first to hear about all new translatable books that have appeared in France, Italy, and England, just like a broker in Amsterdam will be the first to find out about the arrival of Dutch East India Company ships at the port of Texel [Tessel]. All booksellers in need of translations turn to the services of these persons, who, in their turn, know what tasks are most suited to each of their labourers and how much their wages are to be rated.
The remarkable reception histories of Robinson Crusoe, Werther, and other works show that the intensity of this bibliophagy only increases over the course of the century, as the market expands and the food supply is increased proportionately. Briefwechsel mit einer Auswahl und dem Verzeichnis der Rezensionen Knigges in der "Allgemeinen deutschen Bibliothek". Felix Weisse, Joh. Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus. Finding libraries that hold this item It is one of three so called Old Prussian Grand Lodges.
They pass on the work to the industrious ones and punish those who are slack by withholding from them their protection; the only work they do themselves is perhaps to correct any faults in the translations they have ordered, or simply just to varnish them with their illustrious names. For entrepreneurs of this kind are usually very good at penning prefaces. They also know very well how much effort exactly has to be put into each type of translation, and what means they have to use, so that their translations are praised far and wide and the public expresses its gratitude to the worthy man who has thus done so much for the German scholarly world.
Book-writing a trade? Some of these changes, however, were not incorporated into the enacted Statute. Decisive arguments were brought forward in a memorandum by Friedrich Nicolai dated 6 December Over forty-five pages he set forth his objections to almost every section of the published draft and concluded by proposing a completely new one.
In fact, the views expressed here turn out to be even more critical than those which the old proof-reader had shared with Sebaldus Nothanker in the satirical novel of It will be very difficult to persuade most scholars to subject themselves to such formalities, especially if they are renowned authors.
A great deal of writers are slovenly in business matters and often very stubborn. Some of them also like to keep a back-door open for themselves, if they receive advance payments etc. The writer is in a far better position to force the publisher into a written contract than the other way round, and I can confidently say that it is ten times more likely that, where publication and payment are concerned, the publishers should suffer an injustice from the part of the writers than the other way round. If one wishes to consider the transaction between a writer and his publisher in its true light, then all one has to do is to bear in mind that true scholars are the smallest minority amongst all those who delve in writing.
For, unfortunately, writing has become a profession like any other. Therefore, they will do everything to fill whole sheets of manuscript, regardless of quality, and to then sell these for the highest possible price, so that they can spend the rest of their days in idleness and financial freedom of mind. It would be very much better both for the State and for the true progress of literature if most of these persons either prepared themselves adequately so that they could serve the State as officials, or if they simply did manual labour of some kind.
The publishers, on the other hand, are valuable citizens of the State who have to undertake various enterprises, since otherwise they would not be able to carry on their business.
With regard to translations, Nicolai even suggested that the publishers of these should in general be awarded a full original copyright:. In the case of translations one can assume that they have been carried out by order of the publisher, unless a literary contract has been drawn up to the contrary [that is, a contract like those normally concluded with authors of original literary works]. The ALR, however, as we have seen, did not explicitly prescribe such contracts, and as a result only those authors who were skilled negotiators would have known that they had to insist on the publisher drawing up a formal written contract, which would allow them to limit the number of copies.
This would mean that an author wanting to improve his work would not be so dependant on his [first] publisher. The wholesale price stipulated by the ALR was thus a compromise with the objections received by the editors. So long as the author and his immediate heirs are still alive, the publisher must come to fair and reasonable terms with them as far as new editions are concerned.
After their death the copyright remains in the possession of the current publisher [that is, the one who had produced the latest edition].
In support of his proposal Nicolai also claimed that this had been the custom so far in Germany, Holland and France. Older provisions in Saxony or in other parts of the Holy Roman Empire had always pointed to the application of a privilege as the appropriate form of protection.
The English Statute of Anne may have been the first act to make a general provision on reprinting that could be described as a copyright law; the Prussian Statute Book ALR probably was the first code of legislation to centre on the publishing contract. This is the most obvious difference to the provisions in the Statute of Anne and to the French legislation of and , and its adaptations in Baden in and in the Prussian copyright act of For even when the ALR was in force, book privileges still continued, for many more years, to be issued and regarded as a stronger form of protection.
Translation by Luis A.
Quoted in Klippel, p. The concerns that they raised helped to ensure that the privileges of the nobility were preserved.
Quoted in Kleensang, p. Kawohl and M. Quoted in Schwennicke, p. Schwennicke, p.
Ohne Einwilligung des Schriftstellers oder seiner Erben kann in der Regel niemand das Verlagsrecht erlangen. Das einmal abgetretene Verlagsrecht bleibt Eigenthum dessen, der solches an sich gebracht hat. Der Nachdrucker wird mit einer Strafe von Ducaten belegt, und die von ihm gedruckten Exemplarien sollen vernichtet werden. According to Schwennicke, p. This provision, however, was not enacted. All the passages from the novel quoted here have been translated by Luis A. Wer am theuersten verkauft, oder am wohlfeilsten eingekauft hat, glaubt, er habe den besten Handel gemacht.
HA Rep. XVI, Nr. The German original can be accessed Primary Sources. Der Schriftsteller kann weit eher den Buchhalter [ sic. Die Schriftstellerey ist leider ein Gewerbe geworden. Becket , Primary Sources. A similar point is made by Vogel, p. Puede recomendar a su establecimiento y a la biblioteca que frecuenta habitualmente de suscribirse a OpenEdition Freemium.