Programs must be planned that become ingrained into the daily life of participants, that reflects their values and add positive functionality to their lives. Successful programs often involve more long-term learning arrangements consisting of regular visits and the free, unforced offer of information. African philosophy of adult education recognizes the western ideas such as liberalism , progressivism , humanism and behaviorism , while complementing them with native African perspectives. In , Many reasons exist for why formal education for females is unavailable to so many, including cultural reasons.
For example, some believe that a woman's education will get in the way of her duties as a wife and a mother.
In some places in Africa where women marry at age 12 or 13, education is considered a hindrance to a young woman's development. A positive correlation exists between the enrollment of girls in primary school and the gross national product and increase of life expectancy. Women's education is sometimes corrupted by sexual violence. Sexual violence against girls and female students affects many African education systems.
In Sub-Saharan Africa, sexual violence is one of the most common and least known forms of corruption. While most of the Millennium Development Goals face a deadline of , the gender parity target was set to be achieved a full ten years earlier - an acknowledgement that equal access to education is the foundation for all other development goals.
In countries where resources and school facilities are lacking, and total enrollments are low, a choice must often be made in families between sending a girl or a boy to school. The foremost factor limiting female education is poverty. This gender bias decision in sending females to school is also based on gender roles dictated by culture. Girls usually are required to complete household chores or take care of their younger siblings when they reach home. This limits their time to study and in many cases, may even have to miss school to complete their duties. Boys however, may be given more time to study if their parents believe that the education will allow them to earn more in the future.
Additionally, in most African societies , women are seen as the collectors, managers, and guardians of water, especially within the domestic sphere that includes household chores, cooking, washing, and child rearing.
Whatever the underlying reason s are, about having large numbers of girls outside the formal schooling system brings developmental challenges to both current and future generations. According to the UNESCO, the rates of female children out of primary school is higher than that of male children in all the African countries where data is available. In Africa and the Arab world, promoting gender equality and empowering women is perhaps the most important of the eight Millennium Development Goals.
Had this growth taken place, Africa's economies would have doubled over the past 30 years. Studies show that educated women are more likely to know how to prevent HIV infection, to delay sexual activity and to take measures to protect themselves. Not only is a basic education essential to be able to process and evaluate information, it also gives the most marginalized groups in society—notably young women—the status and confidence needed to act on information and refuse unsafe sex.
Article 10 pinpoints nine changes that must be changed in order to help African women and other women suffering from gender disparity. It first states, their must be the same conditions for careers, vocational guidance, and for the achievement of diplomas in educational establishments of all categories in rural as well as in urban areas. This equality shall be ensured in pre-school, general, technical, professional and higher technical education, as well as in all types of vocational training. This is encouraged by coeducation and other types of education which will help to achieve this aim and, in particular, by the revision of textbooks and school programmes and the adaptation of teaching methods.
The goal is education for all as laid out by the World Conference on Education for All  and other international conferences. Between and the net enrollment of boys increased by 9 per cent to 56 per cent, and of girls by 7 per cent to 48 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa.
In countries of the Indian Ocean, both girls and boys attained over 70 per cent net enrollment. The initiative, which is supported by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation NORAD , promotes girls and women's education through the integration of gender into education policy and practice in sub-Saharan Africa.
This three-year research initiative aims to work collaboratively with established research institutions to produce pertinent and robust research. A joint study by the World Bank and AFD  carried out by Alain Mingat, Blandine Ledoux and Ramahatra Rakotomalala sought to anticipate the pressures that would be brought to bear on post-primary teaching. If all the pupils finishing primary school could continue with their education, the number of pupils in the first year of secondary school would reach Only a few countries are falling seriously behind in education at the same time as having to address a steady growth in their school-age population: Niger , Eritrea , Burundi , Guinea-Bissau , Uganda and to a lesser extent Burkina Faso , Chad , Mali , Mozambique , Rwanda , Senegal and Malawi are particularly affected by this dual constraint.
The majority of out-of-school populations are to be found in countries where there is conflict or very weak governance. Twenty States in sub-Saharan Africa have been touched by conflict since In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in North Kivu , a region particularly affected by conflicts, for example, the likelihood of young people aged between 17 and 22 having had only two years of schooling was twice the national average.
Less than half the children in sub-Saharan Africa can neither read nor write: a quarter of primary school age children reach the fourth year without having acquired the basics and over a third do not reach the fourth year. In Chad, for example, only Educational technology in sub-Saharan Africa refers to the promotion, development and use of information and communication technologies ICT , m-learning , media, and other technological tools to improve aspects of education in sub-Saharan Africa.
Since the s, various information and communication technologies have aroused strong interest in sub-Saharan Africa as a way of increasing access to education, and enhancing its quality and fairness. The development of individual computer technology has proved a major turning point in the implementation of projects dependent on technology use, and calls for the acquisition of computer skills first by teachers and then by pupils.
Between and , multiple actions were started in order to turn technologies into a lever for improving education in sub-Saharan Africa.
The work of Moll and his colleagues Moll et al. Certain technologies, perceived as outdated compared to more innovative technology, nonetheless remain very much embedded in local practice. Lambert, W. Across the South, shares were much higher, with the highest percentage, 71 percent—or nearly three in four students—in Mississippi Southern Education Foundation A critical analysis of the birth of the field in its social context. Galguera, T.
Many initiatives focused on equipping schools with computer hardware. Sometimes with backing from cooperation agencies or development agencies like USAID , the African Bank or the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs , these individual initiatives grew without adequate coordination. States found it difficult to define their national strategies with regard to ICT in Education.
This technological breakthrough marked an important step in potential access to ICT.
The underlying logic of the initiative was one of centralization, thus enabling the largescale distribution of the equipment. Though it has a smaller presence in sub-Saharan Africa than the OLPC project, Classmate PC has enabled laptop computers to be delivered to primary schools in the Seychelles and Kenya , particularly in rural areas. The cross-fertilization of teaching models and tools has now broadened the potential of ICT within the educational framework.
Certain technologies, perceived as outdated compared to more innovative technology, nonetheless remain very much embedded in local practice. Today they are undergoing a partial revival, thanks to the combination of different media that can be used in any single project. Despite its limited uses in teaching, radio is a medium that still has considerable reach in terms of its audience.
Cheaper than a computer, it also has a cost-benefit ratio that makes it attractive to many project planners. In 15 months, over 10 million calls paid, but at a reduced price compared to a normal communication were made, by over 3 million users. As part of the Bridge IT programme in Tanzania, short educational videos, also available on mobile phones, are broadcast on the classroom television so that all the pupils can take part collectively. There are currently ten schools taking part in the project. Another digital tool with multiple uses, the interactive whiteboard IWB , is also being used in some schools in sub-Saharan Africa.
The use of the IWB has had a positive effect on motivation, for pupils and teachers alike. However, their impact in terms of learning has been muted. This system marginalizes the direct participation of the pupils in favour of multi-media demonstrations initiated by the teacher. The main initiatives based on the use of ICT and the Internet in education originally focused on distance learning at university level.
When it became an intergovernmental agency in , it was training 40, people, mostly on short programmes. It shifted its focus to teacher training and to integrating technology into higher education. The AVU has ten e-learning centres. The Agence universitaire de la Francophonie AUF has also, since , set up around forty Frenchspeaking digital campuses, more than half of them in Africa.
In these infrastructures, dedicated to technology and set up within the universities, the AUF offers access to over 80 first and master's degrees entirely by distance learning, about 30 of which are awarded by African institutions and created with its support. There is also a push in many African countries to reform colonial education standards to emphasize the importance of indigenous languages and cultures instead of European languages and cultures.
Main article: Educational technology in sub-Saharan Africa. Africa portal.
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States and Power in Africa. Princeton University Press. The Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth. The Journal of Economic History. African Arts. Journal of African Cultural Studies. Dipo and the politics of culture in Ghana.
Accra Newtown, Ghana: Woeli Publication.